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Open Access Guide

What is Open Access?

A Very Brief Introduction to Open Access

by Peter Suber, (CC BY 3.0 US)

Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder.

In most fields, scholarly journals do not pay authors, who can therefore consent to OA without losing revenue. In this respect scholars and scientists are very differently situated from most musicians and movie-makers, and controversies about OA to music and movies do not carry over to research literature.

OA is entirely compatible with peer review, and all the major OA initiatives for scientific and scholarly literature insist on its importance. Just as authors of journal articles donate their labor, so do most journal editors and referees participating in peer review.

OA literature is not free to produce, even if it is less expensive to produce than conventionally published literature. The question is not whether scholarly literature can be made costless, but whether there are better ways to pay the bills than by charging readers and creating access barriers. Business models for paying the bills depend on how OA is delivered.

There are two primary vehicles for delivering OA to research articles: OA journals and OA archives or repositories.

  • OA archives or repositories do not perform peer review, but simply make their contents freely available to the world. They may contain unrefereed preprints, refereed postprints, or both. Archives may belong to institutions, such as universities and laboratories, or disciplines, such as physics and economics. Authors may archive their preprints without anyone else's permission, and a majority of journals already permit authors to archive their postprints. When archives comply with the metadata harvesting protocol of the Open Archives Initiative, then they are interoperable and users can find their contents without knowing which archives exist, where they are located, or what they contain. There is now open-source software for building and maintaining OAI-compliant archives and worldwide momentum for using it. OA journals perform peer review and then make the approved contents freely available to the world. Their expenses consist of peer review, manuscript preparation, and server space.
  • OA journals pay their bills very much the way broadcast television and radio stations do: those with an interest in disseminating the content pay the production costs upfront so that access can be free of charge for everyone with the right equipment. Sometimes this means that journals have a subsidy from the hosting university or professional society. Sometimes it means that journals charge a processing fee on accepted articles, to be paid by the author or the author's sponsor (employer, funding agency). OA journals that charge processing fees usually waive them in cases of economic hardship. OA journals with institutional subsidies tend to charge no processing fees. OA journals can get by on lower subsidies or fees if they have income from other publications, advertising, priced add-ons, or auxiliary services. Some institutions and consortia arrange fee discounts. Some OA publishers waive the fee for all researchers affiliated with institutions that have purchased an annual membership. There's a lot of room for creativity in finding ways to pay the costs of a peer-reviewed OA journal, and we're far from having exhausted our cleverness and imagination.

For a longer introduction, with live links for further reading, see my Open Access Overview,


Open Access Publishing for Faculty and Scholars Explained!

Open Access Tools Recommended by SMCM Librarians

Interested in searching for open access materials, but not sure where to find them?

Here are three tools recommended by SMCM library staff to get you started….


Unpaywall is a browser extention developed by Impactstory, an “open-source website that helps researchers explore and share the online impact of their research”.

Unpaywall harvests content from many different types of open access repositories and using the browser extension, users can find full-text for about 50-85% of OA articles available online. Free and easy to download to Chrome or Firefox., is an API (“Application Programming Interface”) which powers the Unpaywall browser extension, and indexes the millions of full-text OA articles available in repositories all over the web. You can even build your own API on the data!


Zenodo is an open data repository, with over 8,000 open data sets covering many disciplines. Created within the OpenAire Project in Europe, Zenodo is an open data tool which is designed to share research outputs, freely, with flexible licensing and permissions. Once a search is performed there are additional filters such as limiting by dataset (versus an article, which is also available) and specific file type (such as Excel). 

The freely available database also has articles, software, posters, presentations and more.